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Fetus = approximately 1.25 mm long An experienced sonographer can detect a yolk sac with transvaginal ultrasound when the gestational sac has reached a mean diameter of 8 mm to 10 mm.

With transvaginal ultrasonography, cardiac motion can sometimes be seen in a 2-mm to 3-mm embryo, and is invariably detected in normal pregnancy when the length of the embryo reaches 5 mm.

At the end of week 5, the heart rate is about 60 – 90 bpm.

Transabdominal ultrasound will provide a panoramic view of the abdomen and pelvis and is noninvasive, whereas transvaginal ultrasound provides a more limited pelvic view and requires insertion of a probe into the vagina.

Transabdominal ultrasound cannot reliably diagnose pregnancies that are less than 6 weeks gestation.

Measurements taken at these early scans will help to; confirm a pregnancy, date the pregnancy and to see any problems that may occur in the pregnancy ( low lying placenta, twins etc.).

Scans in early pregnancy are usually performed in the first trimester around 12 weeks.

The yolk sac is first visible at 5 weeks and it is always present by 5 weeks and 4 days.

There are lacunary structures [cavities or spaces] at the site of implantation.

It initially appears as a round, anechoic structure.

In experienced hands, it may be detected as early as 30 days gestation by TVU.

The term ‘syndrome’ is used to describe a collection of features which are often seen together.

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